天津英语翻译交流-中医阴阳从人体的结构来说，人体的上部为阳，下部为阴；体表为阳，体内为阴；背为阳，腹为阴；四肢的外侧为阳，内侧为阴。在人体的脏腑中，心、肝、脾、肺、肾五脏贮藏精气，属阴。大肠、小肠、胆、胃、膀胱、三焦六腑是传导的通路，不藏精气，属阳。From the perspective of human body morphology, the upper part of the body is called yang and the lower part yin; the surface is called yang and the internal yin; back is called yang and belly yin; the lateral side of limbs is call yang and the medial side of limbs yin; the five internal visceras storing energy qi are called yin and six hollow-organs transmitting qi, are called yang.五行就是木、火、土、金、水五种物质的运动变化。木的特性为生长、舒畅；火的特性为温热、升腾；土的特性为：生化、承载、受纳；金的特性为：清洁、肃降、收敛；水的特性为：寒凉、滋润、向下运动。五行的交互作用是：一种物质对其他物质具有的促进、滋生作用称为“相生”，对其他物质具有抑制和制约作用称为“相克”。五行相生的关系：木生火，火生土，土生金，金生水，水生木。五行相克的关系是：木克土，土克水，水克火，火克金，金克木。The Five-Element Theory talks about the movement and transformation of five elements which are Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water.Characteristics of Wood: growing, developing and relaxing; Characteristics of Fire: warm and uprising; Characteristics of Earth: generating, bearing and accepting; Characteristics of Metal: clean, pure and contracting; Characteristics of Water: cold, nourishing, moistening and descendant. These five elements interact with each other: the interaction that one element promotes and breeds another is called “generating” and one restrains and restricts another is called “overcoming”.Generating: Wood feeds Fire; Fire creates Earth; Earth bears Metal; Metal carries Water; Water nourished Wood. Overcoming: Wood parts Earth; Metal chops Wood; Fire melts Metal; Water quenches Fire; Earth dams Water.
翻译交流-中医行业英语翻译西周时的《诗经》，在诗中记载了益母草、枸杞子、青蒿等50多种中药，这是中国现存文献中早有关记载的书籍。《周礼》中则将医生分为食医、疾医、疡医、兽医。周代已经使用望、闻、问、切等诊病方法，以及药物、针灸、手术等治疗方法。根据《左传》记载，春秋时期晋国有医衍，秦国有医缓、医和，还有齐医、楚医等。这些都是当时的官医。战国时期的名医扁鹊就精通望诊和切诊，留下了许多精彩的案例。The book Shi Jing(The Book of Songs), written in the western Zhou Dynasty and recording over 50 medicinal herbs including leonurus, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry and sweet wormwood, is the earliest existing book about the medicines in China. Zhou Li(The Rites of Zhou) classified medical personnel into food doctors, internists, surgeons and veterinarians. The diagnosis methods like observation, auscultation and olfaction, inquiry and palpation and the therapeutic methods such as medicines, acupuncture and moxibustion and surgery were already used in Zhou Dynasty. According to the records of Zuo Zhuan (Chronicle of Zuo), in the Spring and Autumn Period, the doctor was called Yiyan in the State of Jin, Yihuan and Yihe in the state of Qin, as well as Qiyi(doctors in the State of Qi) and Chuyi(doctor in the State of Chu), all of which were the official doctors at that time. The famous doctor in the Warring State Period Bian Que was proficient in observation and palpation, and left behind many splendid cases.唐代的孙思邈总结了前人的理论与经验，收集了5000多个，并采用辩证疗法，被人尊为“药王”。唐以后，中国医学理论和著作大量外传到高丽、日本、中亚、西亚等地。两宋时期，朝廷设立翰林医学院，医学分科接近完备，并且统一了中国针灸的穴位，出版了《图经》。此后，历代名医、医著辈出，中医逐渐形成多种学术流派，儿科，妇科，外科等专业化日趋成熟，对于药物的功效、炮制、配伍方面的认识也日趋完善。By summing up the theories and experience of the predecessors, Sun Simiao in the Tang Dynasty, who was called “King of Medicine” collected more than 5000 prescriptions and adopted the treatment based on syndrome differentiation. After the Tang Dynasty, a lot of works and theories concerning TCM were introduced to Korea, Japan and countries and regions in Central Asia and Western Asia, etc. During the Song Dynasty, some valuable work for medical development was carried out by the court such as setting up the Imperial Medical Academy, dividing the medicine to systematical branches, unifying the position of the acupoint, and publishing the Tu Jing, (Illustrated Classics). During the following long period, famous doctors and medical classics came forth in large numbers, various academic schools formed, different specialties such as pediatrics, gynecology and surgery had been maturing gradually, and people’s understanding about the effect, preparation and compatibility of medicines had been improving.
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